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In the face of an evolving energy landscape and geopolitical uncertainties, European nations find themselves at a crossroads when it comes to the role of nuclear power. Despite being labeled “green energy” under the Net Zero Industry Act, the controversy surrounding nuclear power persists. This article delves into the nuanced perspectives within the European Union, exploring the geopolitical, economic, and environmental factors influencing the region’s stance on nuclear energy.

Navigating Europe’s nuclear landscape

As of now, the European Union operates 100 reactors in 12 member states, with ongoing construction projects reflecting a shift away from coal dependency, as seen in Poland. Germany, in contrast, has taken a radical approach, shutting down its last three nuclear reactors in April 2023. The EU generates 60% of its electricity from low-carbon sources, with nuclear power contributing 22%. The recent Russian invasion of Ukraine has prompted a reevaluation of energy sources, aiming to reduce reliance on Russian gas. Simultaneously, European countries face the challenge of curbing rising energy costs while striving to phase out fossil fuels. This complex geopolitical scenario has triggered a reassessment of nuclear power’s role in achieving energy security.

Divergent paths within the EU

Divergent national approaches within the EU highlight the complexities surrounding nuclear power. Germany and Austria remain steadfast in their opposition, emphasizing the perceived risks over benefits. Portugal and Spain opt for alternatives like hydropower. In contrast, Italy sees nuclear power as a strategic necessity for energy objectives and European energy sovereignty, while Belgium postpones reactor closures. France’s initiative, the Nuclear Alliance, underscores the significant role of nuclear power in certain European nations. This alliance, comprising the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Croatia, signals a unified commitment to nuclear energy. France, demonstrating unwavering support, aims to construct new nuclear power plants, mirroring Poland’s strategy to offset coal reliance with nuclear transitional energy.

The role and risks of nuclear power in Europe’s future

The embrace of nuclear power comes with a set of formidable challenges. Safety concerns, radioactive waste management, and public perception are at the forefront. Lingering memories of Chernobyl and Fukushima cast shadows on public opinion, necessitating a careful balance between the benefits and risks associated with nuclear facilities. The unresolved issue of radioactive waste management poses both environmental and ethical quandaries. As European nations grapple with the imperative to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, the role of nuclear power demands ongoing scrutiny. While acknowledging its undeniable benefits in combating climate change and reducing dependence on Russian gas, it is crucial to navigate the inherent challenges posed by safety, waste management, and public perception. Striking a delicate balance will be paramount to ensuring a sustainable and safe energy transition in Europe.

Lists of references :

https://ue.delegfrance.org/le-nucleaire-aujourd-hui-en-europe 

http://www.thegranitetower.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=10891 

https://www.euractiv.fr/section/energie-climat/news/nucleaire-bilan-et-perspectives-dun- retour-en-grace-en-europe/

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/fr/sheet/62/l-energie-nucleaire

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