renewable energies and biodiversity
Hydropower, solar energy, terrestrial wind energy, bioenergy, ocean energy, geothermal energy , these different renewable energy sources are often considered to be environmentally friendly, although they have both positive and negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems . environmental risks and ecological shortages can be reduced through the green economy, defined as an economic system that leads to improve human well-being and social equity. Conserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services are essential pillars of efforts to transition to a green economy.
A review was written by the foundation for Biodiversity Research, which brought together the negative factors of renewable energy on biodiversity.
The negative effects of renewable energy sectors on biodiversity are :
- The impoundment of dams causes degradation of ecosystems and natural reserves and also fragmentation and loss of habitats .
- A disruption of the migration routes of some fish.
- Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs that contribute to anthropogenic climate change.
- Collision of birds with installations
- Burns caused to birds exposed to the intense solar flu that could cause death in some cases
- Increasing use of water especially in deserts
- Habitats loss or fragmentation is the best and most proven effect
- Ecological trap due to cumulative attractors mechanism
- Attraction and disorientation of insects and birds due to intense light
Terrestrial wind energy
- One of the most well documented and studied impacts is the disruption of migratory routes of some bird species.
- Collision of birds and bats with wind turbines,as with birds, the risks are not only for local species but also for migratory species too
- Sudden reductions in air pressure near the blades cause internal injuries in bats
- Competition with native vegetation of certain species used as raw materials (e.g. eucalyptus, miscanthus)
- The use of fertilizers and pesticides causes soil and water pollution
- Changes in local micro-climates due to changes in albedo and evapotranspiration.
- Electromagnetic pollution associated with under water and chemical cables from toxic lubricants and paints
- Increased turbidity in the water column due to seabed disturbances, changes in salinity, more oxygenated water flow into tidal structures.
- Disruption of movement and feeding of local and migratory species
- Species mortality in tidal structures, collision of birds with marine turbines and aquatic species with wave energy devices
- Changes in the composition of benthic fish communities due to habitat loss
- Tropical fish mortality due to thermal shocks generated by some facilities.
Geothermal energy :
- Habitat loss during the conversion of natural areas to geothermal installations
- Habitat change during site deforestation, road construction, well drilling and seismic surveys that affect the breeding, foraging and migration processes of some species
- Emissions of toxic pollutants such as H2S, arsenic and boric acid that can defoliate plants incorporated by organisms
- Noise and heat pollution from geothermal installations.