Norway: sustainable development at global warming.
Norway is a Scandinavian country located in Europe. It is not part of the European Union (EU) but it is in the European Economic Space. This country is in the Arctic Circle. The Norway’s population accounts 4 952 000 Norwegians.
Today, Norway enjoys an air and quality maid’s water. The “green measures” of Norway represent 17% of the reliance program of 2009. To protect the environment, Norway develops ambitious policies. It has several objectives, principally the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, the biodiversity protection, the waste management and the control of urban air pollution. Its objectives are categorised in three priority axes: the climate change, the fight against the deforestation and clean energies.
Norway has established a sustainable development strategy with a rise in national capital. It is a decrease of natural capital (gas and oil) in the benefit of human and financial capital. It includes four principles in the environmental policies: international solidarity, precautionary principle, the pollutant-payer and joint efforts with general population.
However there are still some environmental problems. First, waste management, atmospheric pollution, the quality of water and the offshore pollution of sources. Then, the diesel oil is less taxed than the gasoline without lead. Waste has increased a lot and so has hazardous waste, food waste and industry too: it is 64% of pollution. Finally, Norway has inferior performances as far as the innovation is concerned, to the research and the development despite the fact that it has very good economic results.
There is also a problem with biodiversity. The development of the fish farming continues to threaten the biodiversity with diseases and the breeding of cods remains worrisome. This threatens the stock of fish, and water quality and the biodiversity in the coastal waters too. There is an important risk of eutrophication. And the last thing, the four carnivores in Norway: wolf, greedy, brown bear and lynx. Despite a population growth, they are always threatened.
The problem still exists with the waste management and the oil and gas resources. Between 2000 and 2005 the pollution from oil and gas extraction has increased by 15%. The pollution because of energy production increased by 10% since 2000, and transport’s pollution has increased by 36%.
Norway has established Eco taxes and it eliminated the harmful subsidies for the environment. It adopted more binding measures than EU,such as tax on the emissions of nitrogen oxide, tax on the incineration of waste.
It has also adopted in 2009 a law on the diversity of the nature. This Law serves to protect endangered species, wolf, brown bear, greedy and lynx. It created an Information Center on the Nature to Norwegian population, too.
Norway has an active role in international level. It concluded an international agreement for the farming and the food with UN. It has signed other international convention to fight against the illegal and not regulated fishing, and an international convention on sea transports and recycling of ships.
Today, water management is better. Norway set up the foregrounds of management of the water; it concerns 20 % of water. It also set up modernization of water distribution systems and purification of water must be accelerated to protect human health.
Within the framework of Kyoto Protocol Norway decreased its greenhouse emissions by 9%. But it was very difficult: In 2008 greenhouse gas emissions were superior compared to 1990 before an abrupt decrease in 2009.
To the horizon 2020, Norway has still to make some efforts in the field of the quotas of emissions (decrease) and the energy cost. It must be more coherent. The climate change became inevitable. The current temperature will increase to 1.5°C by 2050 in Norway and in some years it will be warmer. Norway has more precipitations (West and Center of country): increase from 2 to 6%. The energy producted for heating will decrease: in 2011 decrease of 2 TWh and in 2050 it can be of 6 TWh. The precipitations will provide increased supply to the hydraulic system in Norway. Energy Balance of Norway will be improved from 5 to 6 TWh in the normal years. The energy balance is expected to improve to 3-5 TWh by 2030 and to 7.5 TWh between 2030 and 2050.